Zipfel S, Giel KE, Bulik CM, Hay P, Schmidt U. Anorexia nervosa: aetiology, assessment, and treatment. Lancet Psychiatry. 2015;2(12):1099–111.
Treasure J, Duarte TA, Schmidt U. Eating disorders. Lancet. 2020;395(10227):899–911.
Mitchell JE, Peterson CB. Anorexia nervosa. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(14):1343–51.
Treasure J, Zipfel S, Micali N, Wade T, Stice E, Claudino A, et al. Anorexia nervosa. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2015;1(1):15074.
Qian J, Wu Y, Liu F, Zhu Y, Jin H, Zhang H, et al. An update on the prevalence of eating disorders in the general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eat Weight Disord Studies Anorexia Bulimia Obesity. 2022;27(2):415–28.
Solmi M, Radua J, Olivola M, Croce E, Soardo L, Salazar de Pablo G, et al. Age at onset of mental disorders worldwide: large-scale meta-analysis of 192 epidemiological studies. Mol Psychiatry. 2022;27(1):281–95.
Wu J, Liu J, Li S, Ma H, Wang Y. Trends in the prevalence and disability-adjusted life years of eating disorders from 1990 to 2017: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Epidemiol Psychiatric Sci. 2020;29:e191.
Charara R, Forouzanfar M, Naghavi M, Moradi-Lakeh M, Afshin A, Vos T, et al. The burden of mental disorders in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 1990–2013. PLoS ONE. 2017;12(1):e0169575.
El Bcheraoui C, Afshin A, Charara R, Khalil I, Moradi-Lakeh M, Kassebaum NJ, et al. Burden of obesity in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: findings from the Global Burden of Disease 2015 study. Int J Public Health. 2018;63(1):165–76.
Pike KM, Dunne PE. The rise of eating disorders in Asia: a review. J Eat Disord. 2015;3(1):33.
Azzeh M, Peachey G, Loney T. Prevalence of high-risk disordered eating amongst adolescents and young adults in the middle east: a scoping review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022;19(9):5234.
Vos T, Lim SS, Abbafati C, Abbas KM, Abbasi M, Abbasifard M, et al. Global burden of 369 diseases and injuries in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Lancet. 2020;396(10258):1204–22.
Murray CJ, Aravkin AY, Zheng P, Abbafati C, Abbas KM, Abbasi-Kangevari M, et al. Global burden of 87 risk factors in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Lancet. 2020;396(10258):1223–49.
Salomon JA, Haagsma JA, Davis A, de Noordhout CM, Polinder S, Havelaar AH, et al. Disability weights for the Global Burden of Disease 2013 study. Lancet Glob Health. 2015;3(11):e712–23.
Wang Y. Smoothing Splines: Methods and Applications. CRC Press; 2011.
Collaborators GMD. Global, regional, and national burden of 12 mental disorders in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The Lancet Psychiatry. 2022;9(2):137–50.
Mohammadi MR, Mostafavi SA, Hooshyari Z, Khaleghi A, Ahmadi N, Molavi P, et al. Prevalence, correlates and comorbidities of feeding and eating disorders in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Int J Eat Disord. 2020;53(3):349–61.
Uzun O, Güleç N, Ozşahin A, Doruk A, Ozdemir B, Calişkan U. Screening disordered eating attitudes and eating disorders in a sample of Turkish female college students. Compr Psychiatry. 2006;47(2):123–6.
Arcelus J, Mitchell AJ, Wales J, Nielsen S. Mortality rates in patients with anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders. A meta-analysis of 36 studies. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011;68(7):724–31.
Johnson JG, Cohen P, Kasen S, Brook JS. Eating disorders during adolescence and the risk for physical and mental disorders during early adulthood. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002;59(6):545–52.
Preti A, Rocchi MB, Sisti D, Camboni MV, Miotto P. A comprehensive meta-analysis of the risk of suicide in eating disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2011;124(1):6–17.
Fichter MM, Quadflieg N. Mortality in eating disorders—results of a large prospective clinical longitudinal study. Int J Eat Disord. 2016;49(4):391–401.
Bulik CM, Von Holle A, Siega-Riz AM, Torgersen L, Lie KK, Hamer RM, et al. Birth outcomes in women with eating disorders in the Norwegian Mother and Child cohort study (MoBa). Int J Eat Disord. 2009;42(1):9–18.
Micali N, Stemann Larsen P, Strandberg-Larsen K, Nybo Andersen AM. Size at birth and preterm birth in women with lifetime eating disorders: a prospective population-based study. BJOG. 2016;123(8):1301–10.
Watson HJ, Zerwas S, Torgersen L, Gustavson K, Diemer EW, Knudsen GP, et al. Maternal eating disorders and perinatal outcomes: a three-generation study in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. J Abnorm Psychol. 2017;126(5):552–64.
Popovic M, Pizzi C, Rusconi F, Gagliardi L, Galassi C, Trevisan M, et al. The role of maternal anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa before and during pregnancy in early childhood wheezing: findings from the NINFEA birth cohort study. Int J Eat Disord. 2018;51(8):842–51.
Chua YW, Lewis G, Easter A, Lewis G, Solmi F. Eighteen-year trajectories of depressive symptoms in mothers with a lifetime eating disorder: findings from the ALSPAC cohort. Br J Psychiatry. 2020;216(2):90–6.
Duncan L, Yilmaz Z, Gaspar H, Walters R, Goldstein J, Anttila V, et al. Significant locus and metabolic genetic correlations revealed in genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry. 2017;174(9):850–8.
Watson HJ, Yilmaz Z, Thornton LM, Hübel C, Coleman JRI, Gaspar HA, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies eight risk loci and implicates metabo-psychiatric origins for anorexia nervosa. Nat Genet. 2019;51(8):1207–14.
Skårderud F. Eating one’s words: Part III. Mentalisation-based psychotherapy for anorexia nervosa–an outline for a treatment and training manual. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2007;15(5):323–39.
Oldershaw A, Treasure J, Hambrook D, Tchanturia K, Schmidt U. Is anorexia nervosa a version of autism spectrum disorders? Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2011;19(6):462–74.
Morris AM, Katzman DK. The impact of the media on eating disorders in children and adolescents. Paediatr Child Health. 2003;8(5):287–9.
Hammerle F, Huss M, Ernst V, Bürger A. Thinking dimensional: prevalence of DSM-5 early adolescent full syndrome, partial and subthreshold eating disorders in a cross-sectional survey in German schools. BMJ Open. 2016;6(5):e010843.
Walker M, Thornton L, De Choudhury M, Teevan J, Bulik CM, Levinson CA, et al. Facebook use and disordered eating in college-aged women. J Adolesc Health. 2015;57(2):157–63.
Pike KM, Hoek HW, Dunne PE. Cultural trends and eating disorders. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2014;27(6):436–42.
Evans EH, Adamson AJ, Basterfield L, Le Couteur A, Reilly JK, Reilly JJ, et al. Risk factors for eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age: a 6-year longitudinal cohort study. Appetite. 2017;108:12–20.
Levinson CA, Vanzhula IA, Brosof LC, Forbush K. Network analysis as an alternative approach to conceptualizing eating disorders: implications for research and treatment. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2018;20(9):67.
Kim YR, Nakai Y, Thomas JJ. Introduction to a special issue on eating disorders in Asia. Int J Eat Disord. 2021;54(1):3–6.
Ou Z, Yu D, Liang Y, He H, He W, Li Y, et al. Global trends in incidence and death of neonatal disorders and its specific causes in 204 countries/territories during 1990–2019. BMC Public Health. 2022;22(1):1–13.
Collier R. Treatment challenges for men with eating disorders. CMAJ. 2013;185(3):E137–8.
Cucchi A, Ryan D, Konstantakopoulos G, Stroumpa S, Kaçar A, Renshaw S, et al. Lifetime prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury in patients with eating disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychol Med. 2016;46(7):1345–58.
Yao S, Kuja-Halkola R, Thornton LM, Runfola CD, D’Onofrio BM, Almqvist C, et al. Familial liability for eating disorders and suicide attempts: evidence from a population registry in Sweden. JAMA Psychiatr. 2016;73(3):284–91.
Tozzi F, Thornton LM, Klump KL, Fichter MM, Halmi KA, Kaplan AS, et al. Symptom fluctuation in eating disorders: correlates of diagnostic crossover. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162(4):732–40.
Castellini G, Lo Sauro C, Mannucci E, Ravaldi C, Rotella CM, Faravelli C, et al. Diagnostic crossover and outcome predictors in eating disorders according to DSM-IV and DSM-V proposed criteria: a 6-year follow-up study. Psychosom Med. 2011;73(3):270–9.
American Psychiatric A. Treatment of patients with eating disorders,third edition. American Psychiatric Association. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163(7 Suppl):4–54.
Kaplan AS, Walsh BT, Olmsted M, Attia E, Carter JC, Devlin MJ, et al. The slippery slope: prediction of successful weight maintenance in anorexia nervosa. Psychol Med. 2009;39(6):1037–45.
Attia E, Walsh BT. Behavioral management for anorexia nervosa. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(5):500–6.
Pike KM, Walsh BT, Vitousek K, Wilson GT, Bauer J. Cognitive behavior therapy in the posthospitalization treatment of anorexia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160(11):2046–9.
Carter JC, McFarlane TL, Bewell C, Olmsted MP, Woodside DB, Kaplan AS, et al. Maintenance treatment for anorexia nervosa: a comparison of cognitive behavior therapy and treatment as usual. Int J Eat Disord. 2009;42(3):202–7.
Kessler RC, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Alonso J, Chatterji S, Lee S, Ormel J, et al. The global burden of mental disorders: an update from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys. Epidemiol Psichiatr Soc. 2009;18(1):23–33.
Stuhldreher N, Konnopka A, Wild B, Herzog W, Zipfel S, Löwe B, et al. Cost-of-illness studies and cost-effectiveness analyses in eating disorders: a systematic review. Int J Eat Disord. 2012;45(4):476–91.
Bode K, Götz von Olenhusen NM, Wunsch EM, Kliem S, Kröger C. Population-based cost-offset analyses for disorder-specific treatment of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in Germany. Int J Eat Disord. 2017;50(3):239–49.
Chen J, Guo L, Gu L, Han H. The introduction of treatment and the cultural adaptability of western psychotherapies for eating disorders in China. Int J Eat Disord. 2021;54(1):102–6.
Chew CSE, Kelly S, Tay EE, Baeg A, Khaider KB, Oh JY, et al. Implementation of family-based treatment for Asian adolescents with anorexia nervosa: a consecutive cohort examination of outcomes. Int J Eat Disord. 2021;54(1):107–16.
Iguchi T, Miyawaki D, Harada T, Ogiwara K. Introduction of family-based treatment to Japan with adaptations to optimize the cultural acceptability and advance current traditional treatments of adolescent anorexia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord. 2021;54(1):117–9.
Maziak W. Health in the middle East. BMJ. 2006;333(7573):815–6.
Latzer Y, Vander S, Gilat I. Socio-demographic characteristics of eating disorder patients in an outpatient clinic: a descriptive epidemiological study. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2008;16(2):139–46.
Tan M, Uzun O, Akçay F. Trends in complementary and alternative medicine in eastern Turkey. J Altern Complement Med. 2004;10(5):861–5.
Alrowais NA, Alyousefi NA. The prevalence extent of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among Saudis. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 2017;25(3):306–18.
Erskine HE, Whiteford HA, Pike KM. The global burden of eating disorders. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2016;29(6):346–53.
Li Z, Wang L, Guan H, Han C, Cui P, Liu A, et al. Burden of Eating Disorders in China, 1990–2019: an updated systematic analysis of the global burden of disease study 2019. Front Psychiatry. 2021;12:632418.
Wu J, Liu J, Li S, Ma H, Wang Y. Trends in the prevalence and disability-adjusted life years of eating disorders from 1990 to 2017: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci. 2020;29: e191.
Whiteford HA, Degenhardt L, Rehm J, Baxter AJ, Ferrari AJ, Erskine HE, et al. Global burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2013;382(9904):1575–86.
Thomas J, Khan S, Abdulrahman AA. Eating attitudes and body image concerns among female university students in the United Arab Emirates. Appetite. 2010;54(3):595–8.
Mousa TY, Al-Domi HA, Mashal RH, Jibril MA. Eating disturbances among adolescent schoolgirls in Jordan. Appetite. 2010;54(1):196–201.
Kugu N, Akyuz G, Dogan O, Ersan E, Izgic F. The prevalence of eating disorders among university students and the relationship with some individual characteristics. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2006;40(2):129–35.
Nobakht M, Dezhkam M. An epidemiological study of eating disorders in Iran. Int J Eat Disord. 2000;28(3):265–71.
Rauof M, Ebrahimi H, Asghari Jafarabadi M, Malek A, Babapour KJ. Prevalence of eating disorders among adolescents in the northwest of Iran. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2015;17(10):e19331.
Daeie-Farshbaf L, Ebrahimi-Mameghani M, Sarbakhsh P, Roshanravan N, Tarighat-Esfanjani A. Age at menarche, eating disorders, and their relationships with some parameters in female adolescents in Iran. BMC Res Notes. 2021;14(1):72.
Alkazemi D, Zafar TA, Ebrahim M, Kubow S. Distorted weight perception correlates with disordered eating attitudes in Kuwaiti college women. Int J Eat Disord. 2018;51(5):449–58.
Ebrahim M, Alkazemi D, Zafar TA, Kubow S. Disordered eating attitudes correlate with body dissatisfaction among Kuwaiti male college students. J Eat Disord. 2019;7:37.
Al-Adawi S, Dorvlo AS, Burke DT, Al-Bahlani S, Martin RG, Al-Ismaily S. Presence and severity of anorexia and bulimia among male and female Omani and non-Omani adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2002;41(9):1124–30.
Abd El-Azeem Taha AA, Abu-Zaid HA, El-Sayed Desouky D. Eating disorders among female students of Taif University, Saudi Arabia. Arch Iran Med. 2018;21(3):111–7.