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Table 1 Eating Disorder and Disordered Eating Behavior Risk Factors in Lesbian Adults and Adolescents

From: Eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors in the LGBT population: a review of the literature

Risk Factors Eating Disorders Disordered Eating Behaviors
Adults Adults Adolescents
Sexual Orientation Less time out about sexual orientation
Less connection to the LGB community
Low sexual identity development
Perceived stigma
Discrimination
Concealment of sexual orientation
Less involvement in the LGB community
Internalized homophobia
Internalized homonegativity
Heterosexist experiences
Proximal minority stress
Lower sense of belonging to the lesbian community, organizations, and friends
Stigma consciousness
Achieving sexual minority developmental milestones at a younger age
Relationship Dynamic Low social support
Unmet need to belong
Greater pressure from female partners
Pressure from family
Greater pressure from LGB friends
Less social support from family
Less social support from friends
Less enjoyment of sexualization
Isolation
 
Body Image Body preoccupation
Greater importance of fitness
Importance of being attractive
Body image dissatisfaction
Higher BMI
Actual to ideal weight discrepancy
Internalized sociocultural standards of beauty
Media pressure to be thin
Thin ideal internalization
Weight discrimination
Internalized cultural attitudes concerning thinness
Body esteem concerning weight
Physical condition
Sexual attractiveness
Sexual objectification
Self-objectification
Body surveillance
Negative eating attitudes
Higher perceived weight status
Body image dissatisfaction
Higher BMI
Body image dissatisfaction
Higher BMI
Intrapsychic Functioning Low self-esteem Low self-esteem
Negative affect
Reduced self-awareness
Shame
Internalization of sociocultural standards
Interoceptive awareness
Emotional control
Self-blame
Catastrophizing
Media internalization
 
Demographic Hispanic/Latina or black ethnicity Caucasian ethnicity
Older age
 
Mental Health Depression
Anxiety
Negative affect
Social anxiety
Depression
Anxiety
Eating as negative affect regulation
Depression
Anxiety
Excessive alcohol use
Gender Attitude   Negative femininity
Low endorsement of women’s movement
Less work for women’s status
Acceptance of traditional gender roles
Realization of sexism
Body-gender identity incongruence
Lower masculinity
Non-identification as a feminist