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Table 1 Heritability measures (best fit model) of traits related to ARFID presentation. A summary of twin/family study derived heritability estimates

From: How genetic analysis may contribute to the understanding of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID)

References Age range Study metrics Specific behaviour or trait Additive genetic variance (a2) Non-additive genetic variance (d2) Shared environmental variance (c2) Non-shared environmental variance (e2)
Fildes et al. (2014) [107] 3.5 ± 0.27 y Gemini Study: 1343 twin pairs, n = 458 [MZ], n = 872 [DZ], 50.4% female
Instrument: 114 item parent-report questionnaire on food preferences
Vegetable preference 0.54 (0.47–0.63) 0.35 (0.27–0.42) 0.11 (0.10–0.13)
   Fruit preference 0.53 (0.45–0.61) 0.35 (0.26–0.43) 0.13 (0.11–0.15)
   Protein preference 0.48 (0.40–0.57) 0.37 (0.27–0.45) 0.15 (0.13–0.17)
   Dairy preference 0.54 (0.47–0.60) 0.54 (0.47–0.60) 0.19 (0.16–0.22)
   Starch preference 0.32 (0.26–0.38) 0.57 (0.51–0.62) 0.11 (0.10–0.13)
Breen et al. (2006) [108] 4–5 y Twins Early Development Study (TEDS): 214 same-sex twin pairs, n = 103 [MZ] n = 111 [DZ], 52% female
Instrument: Mother-report questionnaire on food preferences (95 food items)
Vegetable preference 0.37 (0.2–0.58) 0.51 (0.30–0.66) 0.13 (.09–.17)
   Dessert preference 0.2 (0.04–0.38) 0.64 (0.46–0.77) 0.16 (.12–.22)
   Meat and fish preference 0.78 (0.63–0.92) 0.12 (0.00–0.27) 0.10 (.08–.12)
   Fruit preference 0.51 (0.37–0.68) 0.32 (0.16–0.46) 0.17 (.14–.20)
Liu et al. (2013) [59] 11–13 y University of Southern California (USC) Twin study: 358 twin pairs, n = 188 [MZ], n = 170 [DZ]
Instrument: 3 day food diary
Fat intake 0.44 (0.28–0.58) 0.56 (0.42–0.72)
   Protein intake 0.31 (0.13–0.47) 0.69 (0.53–0.88)
   Carbohydrate intake 0.43 (0.25–0.58) 0.57 (0.42–0.75)
   Mineral intake 0.45 (0.29–0.59) 0.55 (0.41–0.71)
   Vitamin intake 0.21 (0.00–0.41) 0.04 (0.00–0.34) 0.75 (0.59–0.93)
Fildes et al. (2016) [63] 3.5 ± 0.3 y Gemini Study: 1330 twin pairs, n = 458 [MZ], n = 872 [DZ], 50.5% female
Instrument: 114 item parent report questionnaire on food preferences [107] + CEBQ [109]
Food fussiness 0.78 (0.73–82) 0.05 (0.02–0.09) 0.17 (0.15–0.2)
Smith et al. (2017) [64] 16 m Gemini Study: 1932 twin pairs, n = 626 [MZ], n = 1306 [DZ], 50.6% female
Instrument: Parent-report CEBQ
Food fussiness 0.46 (0.41–0.52) 0.46 (0.40–0.51) 0.09 (0.08–0.10)
   Food neophobia 0.58 (0.5–0.67) 0.22 (0.14–0.30) 0.19 (0.17–0.22)
Cooke et al. (2007) [65] 8–11 y Twins Early Development Study (TEDS): 5390 twin pairs, n = 1913 [MZ], 3477 [DZ], 51.4% female
Instrument: 4 item version of CFNS [110]
Food neophobia 0.78 (0.76–0.79) 0.22 (0.21–0.24)
Knaapila et al. (2007) [66] Adult Migraine family study—28 Finnish families: 105 females, 50 males
Instrument: FNS [110] (10 item version) + FNS-R (6 item version of FNS)
Food neophobia FNS
0.69*
  0.31
    FNSR
0.66 *
  0.34
   UK adult twin registry: 468 female twin pairs, n = 211 [MZ], n = 257 [DZ]
Instrument: FNS [90] (10 item version) + FNS-R (6 item version of FNS)
Food neophobia FNS
0.10 (0.00–0.56)
0.56 (0.09–0.73) 0.33 (0.27–0.41)
    FNSR
0.13 (0.00–0.59)
0.53 (0.06–0.72) 0.34 (0.28–0.41)
Llewellyn et al. (2010) [111] Infant (~ 8 m) Gemini Study: 2334 twin pairs, n = 729 [MZ], n = 1605 [DZ}
Instrument: BEBQ (17 items)[112]
Rate of eating 0.84 (0.79–0.86) 0.00 (0.0–0.05) 0.16 (0.14–0.17)
   Satiety responsiveness 0.72 (0.65–0.80) 0.12 (0.05–0.19) 0.16 (0.14, 0.17)
   Feeding responsiveness 0.59 (0.52–0.65) 0.30 (0.24, 0.36) 0.11 (0.10, 0.13)
   Enjoyment of food 0.53 (0.43–0.63 0.45 (0.35, 0.54) 0.03 (0.02, 0.04)
Herle et al. (2017) [113] 5 y Gemini Study: 1027 twin pairs, n = 346 [MZ], n = 681 [DZ]. Instrument: CEBQ Emotional over eating 0.07 (0.06–0.09) 0.90 (0.89–0.92) 0.02 (0.02–0.03)
   Emotional under eating 0.07 (0.06–0.09) 0.91 (0.90–0.92) 0.02 (0.02–0.02)
Taylor et al. (2018) [114] 9–12 y Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS): 12,419 twin pairs, n = 3586 [MZ], n = 8833 [DZ]
Instrument: A-TAC Perception module (5 items) [115]
Sensory reactivity Males
0.71 (0.68–0.74)
0.29 (0.26–0.32)
    Females
0.66 (0.61–0.69)
0.34 (0.31–0.39)
  1. Variance estimates provided with 95% CI in parentheses
  2. MZ monozygotic, DZ dizygotic, BEBQ Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, A-TAC Autism-Tics, ADHD and other Comorbidities inventory, CEBQ Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, CFNS Child Food Neophobia Scale, FNS Food Neophobia Scale
  3. *Familiarity estimate (a2 + c2), CI not presented