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Table 12 Guided parental self-help CBT (skills training approach + workbook or CBT-based online modules) for caregivers of emerging adults

From: The COVID-19 pandemic and eating disorders in children, adolescents, and emerging adults: virtual care recommendations from the Canadian consensus panel during COVID-19 and beyond

Certainty assessment Impact Certainty Importance
№ of studies Study design Risk of bias Inconsistency Indirectness Imprecision Other considerations
Outcomes: Expressed emotion scale; ED symptom impact scale
1 randomised trials not serious not serious not serious not serious none 1 RCT with caregivers (n = 134 in telephone coaching ECHO intervention; n = 134 control) for individuals with AN [79]. Caregivers in the intervention group had reduced expressed emotion levels at patient discharge and 6-month follow-up.
HIGH
CRITICAL
Caregivers in the telephone coaching intervention group experienced greater reductions in ED symptom impact scale scores than in the control group [79].
1 randomised trials not serious not serious not serious not serious none 1 pilot RCT with caregivers for individuals with AN (n = 33 in OAO web-based intervention; n = 30 in telephone and email hotline control) [113]. Compared with control, the OAO intervention significantly reduced anxiety and depression in caregivers at post-treatment; caregivers in the OAO intervention had greater reductions in expressed emotion than controls, but these were not significant.
HIGH
CRITICAL
Similar to expressed emotion, caregivers’ ED symptom impact scale scores were also reduced across both groups, but there was no significant difference between groups [113].
1 randomised trials not serious not serious not serious not serious none 1 feasibility RCT with caregivers for individuals with AN (n = 19 OAO + guidance intervention; n = 18 OAO only) [114]. Levels of expressed emotion reported by caregivers at post-intervention were reduced but did not differ significantly between the groups. Those with AN did not perceive that their caregivers’ levels of expressed emotion had significantly changed.
HIGH
CRITICAL
Caregivers’ ED symptom impact scale scores were also reduced across both groups, but there was no significant difference between groups [114].
  1. Bibliography:
  2. RCTs – Schmidt 2017 [79], Grover 2011 [113], Hoyle 2013 [114]