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Table 3 Summary of studies reporting the prevalence of Arabs at high risk for eating disorders

From: Eating disorders in the Arab world: a literature review

Country/ Population Authors (year) Participants Study design Measures| Norms Elevated scores at eating disorder screeners M (SD)
Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestinians residing in al-Khalil, Syria, UAE Musaiger et al., (2013) [26] N = 4698, 2240 male, 2458 female, age 15–18 Cross sectional EAT 26| Saudi norms Above clinical cut off: male:13.8–47.3%, female: 16.2–42.7%
Algeria: 15.2%, male 13.8, female 16.2%
Jordan: 31.6%, male 20.1%, female 42.7%
Kuwait: 44.7%, male 47.3%, female 42.8%
Libya: 26.7%, male 19.3%, female 32.6%
Palestinians residing in al-Khalil: 31.7%, male 23.2%, female 38.9%
Syria: 22.9%, male 14.6%, female 32%
UAE: 33.5%, male 29.8% female 37.4%
M (SD) not reported
Egypt Eladawi et al., (2018) [28] N = 400, 112 male, 288 female, weight control center visitors Cross sectional EAT 40| Western norms 65% above clinical cut off
M (SD) = 45.2 (10.2) (age 25–66)
Egypt Nasser (1994) [39] N = 35, female, age 15–16, secondary school students Cross sectional EAT 40| Western norms
Eating interview
EAT 40: 11.4% above clinical cut off
M (SD) total sample not reported
Eating interview: 1.2% BN, 3.4% subclinical BN
Iran Abdollahi & Mann (2001) [64] N = 114, female, university students, Iranian nationals, 45 resided in LA, 59 resided in Teheran Cross sectional EDE-Q
FRS
% above clinical cutoff not reported
Iran Raouf et al., (2015) [76] N = 1990, 951 male, 1039 female, age 13–18, mean age = 15.8 Cross sectional EAT 26| Irani norms
SCID
EAT 26: 24.2% above clinical cut off
M (SD) not reported
SCID: 0.25% diagnosed with ED, 0.7% AN, 0.9% BN, 1.0% OSFED
Jordan Madanat et al., (2007) [80] N = 800, female, mean age = 33.5 Cross sectional EAT 26| Saudi norms
Motivation for eating scale
Restraint scale
Sociocultural attitudes towards appearance scale
Body esteem scale
9- figure silhouettes
EAT 26: 54.8% above clinical cut off
M (SD) = 18.98 (10.76)
Jordan Mousa, Mashal, Al-Domi, & Jibril (2010) [84] N = 326, female, age: 10–16 Cross sectional EAT 26| Western norms
BSQ| Kuwaiti norms
EAT 26: 40.5% above clinical cut off
M (SD) = 16.6 (10.7)
Jordan Mousa, Al-Domi, et al., (2010) [77] N = 432, female, age: 10–16 Cross sectional Eating habits questionnaire OSFED: 31%, BED: 1.8%, BN: 0.6%, AN: 0%
M (SD) not reported
Kuwait Alkhadari et al., (2016) [69] N = 1046, 429 male, 617 female, mean age = 37.6, health care clinic attendees Case control (health care clinic attendees) Patient health questionnaires GAD-7 Eating disorders were not assessed
Kuwait Ebrahim, Alkazemi, Zafar, & Kubow (2019) [86] N = 400, male, university students Cross sectional EAT 26| Saudi norms 46.2% above clinical cut off
M (SD) = 20.4 (14.1)
Lebanon Aoun et al., (2015) [54] N = 123, female, age 15–55, primary health care center visitors Validation SCOFF SCOFF 28% above clinical cut off
M (SD) not reported
Oman Kayano et al., (2008), Viernes et al., (2007) [52, 58] N = 248, 135 Omani, 113 Westerners resided in Oman, age 13–18 Cross sectional EAT 26| Saudi norms
EDI 2 DT| Saudi norms
% above cut-off not reported
EAT: Omani: M (SD) = 8.48 (1.64), European expatriates: M (SD) = 5.98 (1.83)
EDI2 DT: Omani: M (SD) = 4.12 (0.60), European expatriates: M (SD) = 10.14 (0.64).
Country Authors (year) Participants Study design Measures| Norms Elevated scores at eating disorder screeners M (SD)
Oman Al Adawi et al., (2002) [29] N = 293, 106 teenagers, mean age = 15.12, 100 adults, mean age = 38.71; 87 Western teenagers resided in Oman, mean age = 15.10 Cross sectional EAT 26| Saudi norms
Bulimic Investigatory Test
EAT: 33% Omani teenagers, 9% Western teenagers above clinical cut off
M (SD) not reported
Bulimic Investigatory Test: 12.3% Omani teenagers, 2% Omani adults, 18.4% Western teenagers
Palestinians residing in the Northern and Haifa district Latzer et al., (2009) [70] N = 1141, female, age: 12–18, 81.2% Islamic, 11.2% Christian, 7.6% Druze Cross sectional EAT 26| Saudi norms 25% above clinical cut off
M (SD) age 12–13 = 16.5 (11.9), age 14–15 = 15.0 (10.5), age 16–18 = 15.2 (9.7)
Palestinians residing in Nablus Saleh et al., (2018) [36] N = 2001, female university students Cross sectional EAT 26| Saudi norms
SCOFF
EAT: 28.6% above clinical cut off
M (SD) = 15.27 (10.38)
SCOFF: 38.2% above clinical cut off
M (SD) = 1.25 (1.032)
Qatar and Lebanon Kronfol et al., (2018) [55] N = 1841, 167 Lebanon, 785 Qatar, 889 USA university students Cross sectional SCOFF Arab students: 20.4% above clinical cut off
American students: 6.8% above clinical cut off
M (SD) not reported
Saudi Arabia Al- Subaie (2000) [87] N = 1179, female, mean age = 16.1 Cross sectional EDI 2 DT 15.9% above clinical cut off
M 6.7 SD not reported
Saudi Arabia Bano et al., (2013) [67] N = 100, female, age 18–25 Cross sectional EAT 26| Western norms Female: 24% above clinical cut off, male: 2% above clinical cut off
M (SD) female = 16.89 (10.52), M (SD) male = 9.88 (13.26)
Saudi Arabia Fallatah et al., (2015) [66] N = 425, female, age 15–18 Cross sectional EAT 26| Saudi norms 32.9% above clinical cut off
M (SD) = 17.98 (9.29)
UAE Eapen et al., (2006) [20] N = 495, female, age 13–18 Cross sectional EAT 40| Western norms 23.4% above clinical cut off
M (SD) = 15.19 (1.94)
UAE Musaiger, Al-Mannai, & Al-Lalla (2014) [79] N = 731, male, age 15–18, resided in 5 different Emirates Cross sectional EAT 26| Saudi norms % above clinical cut off: Dubai 49.1%, Ajman 33.1%, Al Fujairah 48.0%, Ras al Khaima 34.8%, Um al Quain 39.7%
M (SD) not reported
UAE O’Hara et al., (2016) [74] N = 420, female, mean age = 23.12, university students Cross sectional EAT 26| Western norms
Teasing frequency from Project eating attitudes and teens
Weight and body related shame and guilt scale
EAT 26: 30% above clinical cut off
M (SD) = 15.57 (9.03)
UAE Schulte & Thomas (2013) [89] N = 361, 77 male, 284 female, age 11–19 Cross sectional EAT 26| Western norms 20% above clinical cut off
M (SD) female = 12.88 (8.91), M (SD) male = 11.21 (9.81)
UAE Thomas et al., (2010) [14] N = 228, female, mean age = 19.8, university students Cross sectional EAT 26| Western norms 24.6% above clinical cut off
M (SD) = 13.31 (10.21)
UAE Thomas, O’Hara, et al., (2018) [53] N = 1069, female, university students Cross sectional EAT 26| Western norms 29.0% above clinical cut off
M (SD) = 15.80 (9.39)
UAE Thomas, O’Hara, et al., (2018) [18] N = 209, female, university students Cross sectional EAT 26| Western norms 30.3% above clinical cut off
M (SD) = 14.17 (9.40)
  1. Note: BSQ Body Shape Questionnaire, EAT Eating Attitude Test, EDE-Q Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, FRS Figure Rating Scale, EDI 2 DT Eating Disorders Inventory 2 Drive for Thinness Scale, SCID Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV, SCOFF Sick, Control, One, Stone, Fat, Food