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Table 3 Eating Disorder and Disordered Eating Behavior Risk Factors in Male Bisexual Adults and Adolescents

From: Eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors in the LGBT population: a review of the literature

Risk Factors Eating Disorders Disordered Eating Behaviors
Adults Adults Adolescents
Sexual Orientation Attending a gay recreational group
Ambivalence toward sexual orientation
Concern about the perception of others regarding sexual orientation
Gay community involvement
Sexual objectification experiences
Pornography viewing
Antibisexual discrimination
Internalized biphobia
Sexual objectification experiences
Concealment of sexual orientation
Internalized biphobia
Internalized binegativity
Gay community identification (thinner men)
Sexual objectification experiences
Relationship Dynamic Social media use Being single
Lower relationship satisfaction
Lack of support from adults
Body Image Maladaptive social comparison
Drive for muscularity
Exercise frequency
Internalization of cultural standards of attractiveness
Body surveillance
Steroid use
Upward appearance-based social comparisons
Body image dissatisfaction
Higher BMI
Awareness of sociocultural norms regarding weight
Implicit and explicit attitudes regarding weight
External motivation for working out
Engaging in behaviors to increase muscle mass
Pressure to diet
Internalization of sociocultural standards of attractiveness
Body surveillance
Body image dissatisfaction
Higher BMI
Lack of physical activity
Body image dissatisfaction
Higher BMI
Intrapsychic Functioning Low self-esteem Susceptibility to social messages
Low self-esteem
Reduced self-awareness
Demographic Latino/Hispanic or black ethnicity Caucasian ethnicity
Older age
Older age
Mental Health Anxiety
Substance use disorder
Specific phobia
Any psychiatric disorder
History of childhood sexual abuse
History of childhood sexual abuse
Gender Attitude Gender role orientation
Recalled childhood harassment for gender nonconformity
Conformity to masculine norms