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Table 2 Eating Disorder and Disordered Eating Behavior Risk Factors in Gay Male Adults and Adolescents

From: Eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors in the LGBT population: a review of the literature

Risk Factors Eating Disorders Disordered Eating Behaviors
Adults Adults Adolescents
Sexual Orientation Ambivalence about sexual orientation
Concern about the perception of others regarding sexual orientation
Attending a gay recreational group
Sexual objectification experiences
Pornography viewing
Discrimination
Concealment of sexual orientation
Rumination
Internalized homophobia
Internalized homonegativity
Gay community identification (thinner men)
Belonging to the gay community
High-risk sexual behaviors
Achieving sexual minority developmental milestones at a younger age
Relationship Dynamic Social media use Lower relationship satisfaction
Being single
Unmet need to belong
Social sensitivity
Dating app usage
Bullying
Lack of support from adults
Body Image Longer exercise sessions
Internalization of cultural standards of attractiveness
Body surveillance
Steroid use
Athletic appearance ideal internalization
Upward appearance-base social comparisons
Body image dissatisfaction
Higher BMI
Awareness of sociocultural norms regarding weight
Implicit and explicit attitudes regarding weight
External motivation for working out
Engaging in behaviors to increase muscle mass
Pressure to diet
Body image disturbance
Body image dissatisfaction
Higher BMI
Lack of physical activity
Body image dissatisfaction
Higher BMI
Intrapsychic Functioning   Susceptibility to social messages
Low self-esteem
Low self-compassion
Media internalization
 
Demographic Latino/Hispanic or black ethnicity Caucasian ethnicity
Older age
Younger age
Older age
Mental Health Anxiety
Depression
Substance use disorder
Specific phobia
Any psychiatric disorder
Childhood sexual abuse
History of childhood sexual abuse
Depression
Negative affect
Alcohol abuse
 
Gender Attitude Conformity to masculine norms
Recalled childhood harassment for gender nonconformity
Negative femininity
Greater levels of femininity
Gender role conflict