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Table 4 Bivariate analysis of the factors associated with the Binge Eating Scale (BES) score

From: Validation of the Arabic version of the binge eating scale and correlates of binge eating disorder among a sample of the Lebanese population

  BES p-value
Mean ± SD
Education level+
 Primary 13.04 ± 9.36 0.022
 Complementary 8.65 ± 6.86
 Secondary 9.95 ± 8.25
 University 8.65 ± 7.43
Monthly income
 Low 8.69 ± 7.44 0.459
 Intermediate 9.64 ± 8.84
 High 9.26 ± 7.75
Dieted to lose weight (past 30 days)
 Yes 10.75 ± 7.74 < 0.001
 No 8.23 ± 7.47
Exercised to lose weight (past 30 days)
 Yes 10.26 ± 7.72 < 0.001
 No 8.20 ± 7.47
Vomited or taken laxatives to lose weight (past 30 days)
 Yes 13.37 ± 7.29 < 0.001
 No 8.51 ± 7.53
Taken diet pills to lose weight (past 30 days)
 Yes 13.00 ± 7.69 < 0.001
 No 8.57 ± 7.53
Starving self to lose weight (past 30 days)
 Yes 12.20 ± 8.20 < 0.001
 No 8.19 ± 7.30
Daily weighing
 Yes 10.75 ± 7.92 0.005
 No 8.58 ± 7.53
Receiving comments from the family concerning losing weight
 Yes 10.90 ± 8.03 < 0.001
 No 8.12 ± 7.32
Have you been insulted
 Yes 12.40 ± 8.46 < 0.001
 No 8.53 ± 7.34
Have you been physically abused
 Yes 11.26 ± 8.68 0.014
 No 8.80 ± 7.53
Have you been sexually abused
 Yes 15.37 ± 10.26 0.003
 No 8.74 ± 7.44
Have you been in a bad romantic relationship
 Yes 10.44 ± 8.10 0.001
 No 8.38 ± 7.38
Family history of eating disorders
 Yes 11.86 ± 8.08 < 0.001
 No 8.17 ± 7.33
Pressure from TV, magazine to lose your weight
 Yes 12.80 ± 8.07 < 0.001
 No 8.18 ± 7.31
  Pearson correlation coefficient p-value
Body dissatisfaction score 0.245 < 0.001
Restrained eating scale 0.096 0.008
Body Mass Index 0.200 < 0.001
Perceived stress scale 0.194 < 0.001
Anxiety 0.344 < 0.001
Depression 0.399 < 0.001
ERQ cognitive reappraisal facet −0.113 0.003
ERQ expressive suppression facet −0.095 0.013
State Adult attachment scale-security −0.173 < 0.001
State Adult attachment scale-avoidance 0.083 0.021
EES scale 0.259 < 0.001
  1. ERQ Emotional Regulation Questionnaire, EES Emotional Eating Scale
  2. +One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA): post hoc analysis for education level: primary vs. complementary (13.04 vs. 8.65, p = 0.111); primary vs. secondary (13.04 vs. 9.95, p = 0.449); primary vs. university (13.04 vs. 8.65, p = 0.04); complementary vs. secondary (8.65 vs. 9.95, p = 1.000); complementary vs. university (8.65 vs. 8.65, p = 1.000); secondary vs. university (9.95 vs. 8.65, p = 0.536)