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Table 1 Overview of included studies published 2012-2017. Studies are grouped by design and listed in chronological order

From: Feeding and eating disorders in the DSM-5 era: a systematic review of prevalence rates in non-clinical male and female samples

Author (Year) N Country Gender (N or %) Age range Mean (SD) Sample Assessment Prevalence type Prevalence (%) of ED, AN, BN (95% CI) Prevalence (%) of BED, OSFED, UFED (95% CI)
2-STAGE DESIGN
 Mustelin et al. [10]a 2825 Finland 22-27 24.4 (0.9) FinnTwin16 sample Screening: Self-report questionnaire developed for the study and three subscales from the EDI-2 Diagnosis: SCID-I/NP Lifetime NR OSFED + UFED: 1.5 (1.1-2.1) OSFED: 0.6 (0.3-1.0) UFED: 0.9 (0.6-1-4)
 Mustelin et al. [7]b 2825 Finland 22-27 24.4 (0.9) FinnTwin16 sample Screening: Self-report questionnaire developed for the study and three subscales from the EDI-2 Diagnosis: SCID-I/NP Lifetime AN: 3.6 (2.7-4.2) NR
 Solmi et al. [16]c 1698 UK ♀ (66%) ♂ (44%) 16-90 (mean and SD not available) SELCoH Screening: SCOFF Diagnosis: SCID-I-N/P Point ED: 7.4 (4.1-)13.0 AN: 0.0 (0) BN: 0.8 (0.4-1.9) BED: 3.6 (1.4-9.0) OSFED: 2.4 (0.9-6.7) OSFED-PD: 0.6 (0.2-1.5%)
 Smink et al. [15]d 1597 Holland ♀ (53.9%) ♂ (56.1%) 19.1 (0.6) (age range not available) Community cohort Screening: Questionnaire on mental health and social functioning, height/weight and WHO-CIDI Diagnosis: SCID-I and parts of EDE Lifetime (L) Point (P) ♀ ED (L, P): 5.7, 3.7 (4.2-7.5, 2.6-5.2) AN (L, P): 1.7, 1.2 (1.0-2.9, 0.6-2.1) BN (L, P): 0.8, 0.6 (0.3-1.7, 0.2-1.3) ♂ ED (L, P): 1.2, 0.5 (0.6-2.3, 0.1-1.4) AN (L, P): 0.1, 0.1 (0.0-0.8, 0.0-0.8) BN (L, P): 0.1, 0.1 (0.0-0.8, 0.0-0.8) ♀ BED (L, P): 2.3, 1.6 (1.4-3.6, 0.9-2.7) OSFED (L, P): 0.6, 0.3 (0.2-1.3, 0.1-1.0) UFED (L, P): 0.2, 0.0 (0.0-0.8, 0) ♂ BED (L, P): 0.7, 0.3 (0.2-1.6, 0.0-1-0) OSFED (L, P): 0.3, 0.0 (0.0-1.0, 0) UFED (L, P): 0.0, 0.0 (0,0)
 Machado et al. [9] 3048 Portugal 12-23 16.2 (1.3) 18-58 21.8 (4.3) Female high-school and university students Screening: EDE-Q Diagnosis: EDE Point ED: 3.87 (CI NR) AN: 0.69 (CI NR) BN: 0.59 (CI NR) BED: 0.62 (CI NR) EDNOS: 1.97 (CI NR)
INTERVIEW
 Mohler-Kuo et al. [4]e 10,038 Switzerland ♀ (56%) ♂ (44%) 15-60 (mean and SD not available) Household survey WHO-CIDI Lifetime (L) 12-month (12-m) ♀AN (L, 12-m): 1.9, 0.07 (1.6-2-3, 0.03-0.2) AN ♂ (L, 12-m): 0.2, 0.03 (0.1-0.4, 0.004-0.2) NR
 Hay et al. [11]f 6041 Australia ♀ (−) ♂ (−) 15-96 (mean and SD not available) Cross sectional population sample. Items based on diagnostic items from the EDE Point (3-month) Total sample (% females): ED: 16.3 (15.4-17.3) AN: 0.46 (83%) (0.32-0.67) BN: 0.66 (69%) (0.49-0.9) Total sample (% females): BED: 5.58 (57%) (5.03-6.19) OSFED-BN: 0.70 (74%) (0.51-0.94) OSFED-BED: 6.92 (55%) (6.31-7.59) OSFED-PD: 0.58 (77%) (0.42-0.80) UFED: 1.41 (73%) (1.14-1.74)
 Munn-Chernoff et al. [26]g 3230 1790MZ 1440DZ USA 18-29 Median: 22 (mean and SD not available) Population-based twin study Adapted version of SSAGA Lifetime AN: 1.37 (1.00-1.84) OSFED-PD: 3.77 (3.14-4.49)
 Fairweather-Smith & Wade [19]h 699 Australia 12.7-19.8 (across 3 waves) (age range not available) Adolescent female twin pairs EDE Calculated a total prevalence rate based on wave 1-3 ED: 10.4 (8.3-12.9) AN: 2.0 (CI NR) BN: 1.0 (CI NR) BED: 2.4 (CI NR) OSFED: 5.0 (CI NR) OSFED-AN:1.9 (CI NR) OSFED-BN:2.6 (CI NR) OSFED-PD: 0.6 (CI NR)
 Stice et al. [17]i 496 USA Baseline: 12-15 Mean = 13 (SD not available) Community sample EDDI Lifetime (L) AN: 0.8 (± 0.6) BN: 2.6 (± 1.4) BED: 3.0 (± 1.3) OSFED: 11.5 (± 2.8) OSFED-AN: 2.8 (±1.5) OSFED-BN: 4.4 (±1.6) OSFED-BED: 3.6 (± 1.5) OSFED-PD: 3.4 (± 1.6)
 Hudson et al. [18]j 888 USA ♀ (66.4%) ♂ (33.6%) 18-70 46.7 (17.4) First-degree relatives of probands with or without BED SCID Lifetime (L) Point (P) NR ♀ BED (L, P): 3.6, 1,7 (CI NR) ♂ BED (L, P): 2.1, 0.8 (CI NR)
SELF-REPORT
 Cossrow et al. [27]k 22,397 USA ♀ (54.4%) ♂ (45.6%) ≥18 51.1(15.8) (age range not available) NHWS sample Questions assessing BED criteria through a self-administered Internet survey Lifetime (L) 3-month (3-m) 12-month (12-m) NR BED ♀ + ♂ (L, 3-m, 12-m): 2.03, 1.19, 1.64 (1.83-2.26, 1.04-1.37, 1.45-1.85) BED ♀: (L, 3-m, 12-m): 2,61, 1,60, 2.00 (2.34-2.92, 1.38-1.85, 1.76-2.28) BED ♂: (L, 3-m, 12-m): 1.41, 0,76, 1,24 (1.13-1.77, 0.56-1.03, 0.97-1.59)
 Hammerle et al. [36]l 1654 Germany ♀ (N = 873) ♂ (N = 781) 13.4 (0.8) (age range not available) National school-based cross-sectional survey SIAB-S (as questionnaire) and EDI-2 Point Full syndrome (sex ratio female-male)
AN: 0.3 (5:0) (0.1-0.7) BN: 0.4 (5:1) (0.2-0.8) BED: 0.5 (5:3) (0.2-0.9) OSFED-AN: 3.6 (45:13) (2.7-4-5) OSFED-BN:0.0 (−) (0,-) OSFED-BED: 0.0 (−) (0,-) OSFED-PD: 1.9 (22:9) (1.3-2.77)
 Flament et al. [14]m 3043 Canada ♀ (N = 41.2%) ♂ (N = 58.8%) 11-21 14.2 (1.6) Community sample EDDS Point ED (♀, ♂): 4.46, 2.21 (4.4-4.5, 1.5-3.2) AN (♀, ♂): 0.06, 0.0 (0.00-0.31, 0) BN (♀, ♂): 2.01, 1.31 (1.23-3.25, 0.80-2.13) BED (♀, ♂): 0.68, 0.16 (0.27-1.71, 0.04-0.65) OSFED-PD (♀, ♂): 1.51, 0.74 (0.89-2.53, 0.38-1.41)
 Flament et al. [13]n 3022 Canada ♀ (N = 1789) ♂ (N = 1233) 11-20 14.2 (1.6) Community sample EDDS Point ED (♀ + ♂): 3.7 (2.8-4.7) AN (♀ + ♂): 0.1 (0.0-0.1) BN (♀ + ♂): 1.6 (1.61.1-2.5) BED (♀ + ♂): 0.5 (0.2-1.2) OSFED-PD (♀ + ♂): 1.4 (1.0-1.9)
 de Zwaan et al. [21]o 2460 Germany ♀ (51.1%) ♂ (48.9%) 14-85 48.1 (19.0) Population sample NEQ and EDE-Q8 Point NR OSFED-NES: 1.1 (CI NR)
 Runfola et al. [22] 1636 USA ♀ (59.5%) ♂ (40.5%) 18-26 20.9 (1.7) University students An online survey using the NEQ Point NR OSFED-NES: 4.2 (CI NR)
 Allen et al. [20]p 1383 Australia ♀ (49%) ♂ (51%) 14-20 14-years: 14.0 (0.2) 17-years: 16.9 (0.2) 20-years: 20.0 (0.4) Prospective, population-based cohort study Items adapted from the ChEDE and the EDE-Q Point ED (♀, ♂) 14-yrs: 8.5, 1.2 17-yrs: 15.2, 2.6 20-yrs: 15.2, 2.9 AN (♀, ♂) 14-yrs: 0.3, 0.0 17-yrs: 1.4, 0.0 20-yrs: 0.6, 0.0 BN (♀, ♂) 14-yrs: 2.7, 0.4 17-yrs: 8.7, 0.7 20-yrs: 7.9, 1.6 BED (♀, ♂) 14-yrs: 1.8, 0.0 17-yrs: 1.4, 1.2 20-yrs: 4.1, 0.7 OSFED (♀, ♂) 14-yrs: 3.6, 0.7 17-yrs: 4.1, 0.9 20-yrs: 2.7, 0.6 OSFED-PD (♀, ♂) 14-yrs: 2.7, 0.4 17-yrs: 2.1, 0.6 20-yrs: 1.6, 0.3 OSFED-AN (♀, ♂) 14-yrs: 0.9, 0.3 17-yrs: 0.0, 0.0 20-yrs: 0.1, 0.3
OTHER
 Trace et al. [6]q 13,295 Sweden 20-47 (mean and SD not available) Twin registry subsample An expanded SCID based instrument Lifetime BN: 1.6 (CI NR) BED 0.4 (CI NR)
  1. Note. Prevalence rates are presented exactly as reported in their respective studies. ♀ = Females; ♂ = Males
  2. Abbreviations: 95% CI 95% Confidence Interval, NR Not Reported, ED Eating Disorders, AN Anorexia Nervosa, ARFID Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder, BN Bulimia Nervosa, BED Binge Eating Disorder, OSFED Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorders, UFED Unspecified Feeding and Eating Disorders, L Lifetime prevalence, P Point prevalence, 12-m 12-month prevalence, 3-m 3-month prevalence
  3. a = Prevalence rates are based on the same sample as in Mustelin et al. [7]b. Reported prevalence rates are based on observed cases. Finn Twin16 is a nationwide population based cohort. SCID I-N/P = Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders, Research Version, Non-Patient Edition [37]; EDI-2 = Eating Disorder Inventory-2 [38]
  4. b = Prevalence rates are based on the same sample as in Mustelin et al. [10]a. AN diagnoses were first assessed using DSM-IV, then retrospectively recoded using DSM-5 criteria
  5. c = SELCoH = South East London Community Health Study. SCOFF = Sick, Control, One stone, Fat, Food Questionnaire [39]
  6. c = SCID-I = Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders
  7. d = WHO-CIDI = World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview [40]
  8. e = EDE = the Eating Disorder Examination [41]
  9. g = MZ = Monozygotic twins; DZ = Dizygotic twins; SSAGA = An adaptation of the Semi-Structured Assessment on the Genetics of Alcoholism [42];
  10. h = CI was not reported (NR) for separate ED diagnoses
  11. i = EDDI = The Eating Disorder Diagnostic Interview [43]; The diagnostic category “Feeding or eating disorder not elsewhere classified (FEDNEC)” was renamed by the authors of the current review, to OSFED
  12. j = BED diagnoses were first assessed using DSM-IV, then retrospectively recoded using DSM-5 criteria. CI was not reported (NR) for any ED diagnoses
  13. k = NHWS = the National Health and Wellness Survey
  14. l = SIAB-S = the Structured Interview for Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa Self-report [44]; OSFED-AN = Atypical AN (all criteria is med except significantly low weight), OSFED-BN = Subthreshold BN (of low frequency and/or limited duration), OSFED-BED = Subthreshold BED (of low frequency and/or limited duration), OSFED-PD = Purging Disorder (Recurrent purging in the absence of binge eating)
  15. m = EDDS = the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale [45]. NB: Prevalence rates originate from the Flament et al. [14]m study where overall (♀ + ♂) ED rates are reported
  16. n = Prevalence rates based on the same sample, stratified by gender are presented in Flament et al. [14]n
  17. o = NEQ = Night Eating Questionnaire [23]; EDE-Q8 = The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire 8 [24]
  18. p = ChEDE = the Child Eating Disorder Examination [46]. Confidence intervals were reported visually (using error bars) in the study, but were not presented clearly enough to exclude risk of misinterpretation, and were therefore not included in the table
  19. q = Prevalence rates reported represent binge eating frequency per month ≥4 times