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Table 1 Means and standard deviations of pre- and post-scores of the questionnaire measures and the Photo Distortion Technique in the intervention group and in the control group

From: Effects of a cognitive-behavioral exposure-based body image therapy for overweight females with binge eating disorder: a pilot study

  Intervention group Control group Time Group Time × group
Measure M SD M SD F df p F df p F df p
Body Mass Index (kg/m2)
  Pre 31.98 4.70 36.80 5.08 .098 1 .757 5.26 1 .031 1.83 1 .189
Post 31.89 4.77 37.38 5.13          
d −.01   .11           
Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2)
 Drive for thinness Pre 4.59 .81 4.39 .79 11.03 1 .002 3.05 1 .090 15.34 1 <.001
Post 3.2 .80 4.32 .92          
d −1.72   −.08           
 Bulimia Pre 3.53 .57 3.22 .73 7.95 1 .008 .015 1 .905 4.09 1 .052
Post 2.69 .66 3.06 .98          
d −1.36   −.18           
 Body dissatisfaction Pre 5.31 .65 5.41 .58 8.81 1 .006 8.36 1 .007 16.71 1 <.001
Post 4.32 .67 5.40 .71          
d −1.5   −.01           
Eating Disorder Examination–Questionnaire (EDE-Q)
 Restraint Pre 2.54 1.24 1.82 1.03 .25 1 .618 1.91 1 .176 .92 1 .344
Post 2.05 1.36 1.76 1.04          
d −.37   −.05           
 Eating concern Pre 2.52 1.04 2.27 1.07 11.78 1 .002 1.02 1 .32 9.18 1 .005
Post 1.20 .99 2.30 1.31          
d −1.3   .02           
 Weight concern Pre 3.77 1.09 3.81 1.04 7.83 1 .009 4.59 1 .04 6.56 1 .015
Post 2.42 1.24 3.85 1.21          
d −1.15   .03           
 Shape concern Pre 4.45 1.00 4.43 1.14 14.3 1 .001 9.46 1 .004 22.96 1 <.001
Post 2.49 1.01 4.48 0.97          
d −1.95   .04           
Body Checking Questionnaire (BCQ)
 General Score Pre 31.53 18.5 22.21 11.8 2.15 1 .152 .4 1 .529 4.63 1 .039
Post 23.13 10.9 22.42 16.2          
d −.55    .01          
Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES)
 General Score Pre 29.00 6.48 25.73 6.76 3.49 1 .071 6.03 1 .02 13.89 1 .001
Post 34.46 5.93 25.57 7.26          
d .87   −.02           
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)
 General Score Pre 12.93 7.60 16.36 7.63 5.49 1 .026 5.03 1 .032 7.28 1 .011
Post 6.40 7.15 16.52 9.64          
d −.88   −.01           
Photo Distortion Technique
 “Real” body dimensions Pre 103 8 109 13 .79 1 .381 6.12 1 .019 1.5 1 .229
Post 102 10 114 16          
d −.1   .34           
 “Felt” body dimensions Pre 108 12 114 22 .061 1 .807 2.19 1 .149 0.227 1 .637
Post 103 11 112 21          
d −.43   −.09           
 “Ideal” body dimensions Pre 78 10 79 9 1.63 1 .211 0.52 1 .476 3.64 1 .066
Post 86 7 82 6          
d .92   .39           
  1. Note: Mean score (M), standard deviation (SD), F-score (F), degree of freedom (df), probability level (p), effect size (d)