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Table 1 Summary statistics for analyses of covariance controlling for age for body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and drive for muscularity for male and female HPE and non-HPE participants

From: Body dissatisfaction, excessive exercise, and weight change strategies used by first-year undergraduate students: comparing health and physical education and other education students

  Men Women
  HPEa Non-HPEb   All men HPEc Non-HPEd   All women
  Mean SD Mean SD F η p 2 Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD F η p 2 Mean SD
Body dissatisfaction 16.81 5.70 17.62 6.80 0.84 0.004 17.17 6.17 18.47 5.76 18.39 6.65 0.09 <0.001 18.31 6.38
Drive for thinness 23.25 10.63 23.21 11.75 <0.001 <0.001 23.41 11.12 24.42 8.76 23.85 8.77 0.001 <0.001 24.03 8.71
Drive for muscularity 47.13 15.87 41.56 14.74 5.70*^ 0.026 44.87 15.85 28.50 12.11 25.90 10.73 3.17 0.010 26.77 11.21
Obligatory exercise 50.66 10.33 45.46 11.17 10.71** 0.047 48.45 11.09 48.18 11.30 41.66 9.95 24.98*** 0.072 43.86 10.82
  n % n % z   n % n % n % z   n %
Percentage of obligatory exercisers 64 51.2 28 28.6 3.40***   92 41.3 44 39.3 42 19.8 3.78***   86 26.5
  1. * p < .05; **p < .01, ***p < .001, p < 1.0
  2. Note: Sample sizes differed due to missing data. The following participant numbers for each cohort are provided as a guide: a n = 116–123; b n = 92–100; c n = 107–109; d n = 207–219; ^ Following Bonferroni adjustment, this result was no longer significant at an alpha of p < .01