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Table 1 Characteristics of studies in the review

From: International training programs on eating disorders for professionals, caregivers, and the general public: A scoping review

Training program title Article ID: Author, year, country Training objective/approach Trainees Target population Evaluation method Evaluation findings
Ontario community outreach program for eating disorders McVey, 2005 [18] (Canada) Increase community-based practitioners’ knowledge, involvement and level of comfort to treat clients with EDs; to foster linkages among practitioners in and across regions of the province. Based on an evidence-based model of care Healthcare practitioners; school boards & public health departments Adults, adolescents, children Quantitative; pre-post intervention survey ↑ knowledge re ED, body issues; ↑ confidence to treat or teach on ED; better practitioner links
The student body: promoting health at any size McVey, 2007 [17] (Canada) A prevention program for elementary school teachers and public health practitioners. The web-based approach made the program accessible both inside and outside school hours Elementary teachers; public health professionals Elementary school children RCT ↑ teacher knowledge re dieting & peer influence; high satisfaction w/ online tools & self as role model
The Meal Support Training (MST) Cairns, 2007 [28] (Canada) Introduces concept of meal support; helps others understand feelings of youth with disordered eating around meals; provides approaches/strategies for meal support Parents, caregivers, friends of eating-disordered youth Children with ED Mixed methodology + parent ratings on manual & video, especially re patient input. Tools support parental instincts
Maudsley eating disorder collaborative care workshops Sepulveda, 2008 [26] (UK) Aims to strengthen knowledge and skills of carers, while reducing the burden of caring for their children with ED. Elements of approach: Skill-based instruction; group format; observation of others’ skills; weekly goals Family members of people with all forms of ED Children treated for ED at South London & Maudsley Hospital Quantitative pre-post design + 3 month follow-up ↓ carer distress and care burden over time; benefits = new skills, exchanging with others
Sepulveda, 2008a [23] (UK) Aims to strengthen knowledge and skills of carers, and reduce the emotional burden of caring for their children with ED. Approach includes theory and instruction; demonstration and practice; telephone-administered skills coaching based on behavior therapy Family members of ED patients People with ED Quantitative and qualitative Quant results not sig. Qualitative: ↑ understanding of how reactions & interactions w/ patients impact outcomes.
Maudsley eating disorder collaborative care workshops (continued) Macdonald, 2011 (UK) Aimed at improving communication and reducing social impact of ED for families by addressing negative QOL, burden of illness, distress and expressed emotion. Evidence-based approach, psycho-education principles and motivational interviewing Family and carers of people with ED People with anorexia Qualitative Skills transfer &supplementary coaching were highly valued; positive change for coaching group & acceptability of intervention
Overcoming Anorexia Online (OAO) Grover, 2011 [20] (UK) Aims to provide information, promote self-monitoring and teach skills to identify, understand, and manage Anorexia. Interactive, web-based approach; uses CBT (Williams, 2002, 2009) and systemic framework (Dummett, 2006) Carers (relatives, partners, friends) of someone with broadly defined anorexia People with AN, all ages and stages of illness RCT Main H: ↓ carer distress after OAO supported (vs. controls). Module on communication was most useful.
The care and understanding of people with eating disorders (ENB N46) Abuel-Ealeh, 2001 [12] (UK) Aim of program to raise professionals’ knowledge and awareness of EDs; increase confidence and skills for working with ED clients. A university-level course Mainly nursing students (1 OT; service users) People with ED (future clients of trainees) Quantitative descriptive (some open questions) 81.5 % program completers later worked in ED fields; 77.7 % interested in further training
Collaborative care skills training workshops Pepin & King, 2013 [22] (Australia) Replication of the Maudsley eating disorder collaborative care workshops in Australia Family members People with ED living with family members Quantitative pre-post design + follow-up ↑ adaptive coping strategies over time; ↓ over- Involvement (not EE).
Goodier, 2014 [19] (Australia) Adaptation of the new Maudsley method for parent skills training with children and adolescents Parents of children or adolescents in treatment for ED Children or adolescents with ED qualitative Training helped re: managing illness & family dynamics; broke isolation; peer support
Mental health first aid training course for eating disorders Hart, 2012 [27] (Australia) Aims to improve mental health literacy in the social networks of individuals with ED; translates the MHFA protocol, which is an action plan that provides information on various mental illnesses to the public, into a program specifically for EDs General public Personal contacts (family, friends, classmates etc.) who may need help for ED Quantitative; pre-post repeated measures design ↑ ED knowledge & first aid strate-gies; ↓ stigma (social distance); ↑ confidence to identify & help someone with ED.
(No title) Chally, 1998 [16] (USA) A prevention program for school personnel aimed at providing training to recognize students at risk for ED, or to identify signs and symptoms in students with whom they interact daily High school educators and staff High school students potentially at risk for ED Quantitative, pre-post test, control group design ↑ knowledge & ability to identify students at risk; ↑ belief in getting help; ↓ belief that thin = success.
The eating disorder curriculum for primary care providers Gurni & Halmi, 2001 [13] (USA) Aims at providing a first step in training social workers to serve as eating disorder therapists in primary care clinics 9 female social workers minority group members, low-income, at risk for ED Quantitative (pilot study) ↑ ED knowledge re assessment & treatment; better diagnostic skills post training.
Group Parent Training program (GPT) Zucker, 2005 [26] (USA) Assists caregivers in managing the child’s ED, and facilitates a healthy home environment for sustained change. Draws on narrative family therapy and psycho-educational approaches, emotion-focused therapy, mindfulness strategies, dialectical behavior therapy Parents/carers of patients in the Duke ED Program Patients in the Duke ED Program Qualitative (focus groups) Parent desire for psycho-education materials w/ skills-based approach; ideas re ↑ peer support.
Zucker, 2006 [24] (USA) Overall aim to maximize the effectiveness of parent involvement while minimizing burden in managing EDs; the main approach used dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) adapted to a group parent format. Course content also based on social cognitive, and learning, theories (No answer) Adolescent outpatients from the university affiliated medical center Quantitative descriptive ↑ management of ED, but also better parents; ED skills transfer to other areas; ↑ stress management
Eating disorders and mental health—the EAT framework DeBate, 2009 [11] (USA) Aims to increase the capacity of oral health professionals to deliver ED-specific secondary prevention to patients suspected of disordered eating; uses a framework based on transtheoretical model and brief motivational interviewing Oral health providers Dental patients suspected of having an ED Quantitative pre-post design ↑ self-efficacy; ↑ knowledge re oral manifestations of ED, treatments, attitudes re: 2nd-ary prevention
DeBate, 2012 [10] (USA) To increase knowledge, skill & self-efficacy among dental and dental hygiene students for dealing with oral manifestations of disordered eating; approach is a theory-based framework based on brief motivational interviewing (B-MI) Dental and dental hygiene students Dental patients with signs of disordered eating Quantitative, group randomized control design ↑ improvement vs controls re ED knowledge, oral findings, skills-based knowledge, self-efficacy
The parent partner program™ Haltom, 2012 [21] (USA) To provide carers with knowledge and skills to support people with ED, but also bring together a community of professionals, carers and advocates around integrated treatment; uses philosophy of mutual support and learning based on research by Bronfenbrenner (Cochran & Henderson, 1986) Family, friends caring for ED patients Anyone with ED Quantitative pre-post test design ↑ knowledge re ED, treatment; how to provide support, ↑ support re carers & empathy re people w/ ED.
Body and self esteem Rosenvinge, 2003 [15] (Norway) Increase clinical competence of health providers in ED; encourage interdisciplinary work at local level, and therapists to as ED resources in health care services; approaches: family therapy; CBT); psychodynamic therapy Local multi-disciplinary health care professionals Prospective clients of trainees Quantitative pre-post design + 1 year follow-up Needed more time to learn clinical skills, management, therapy; ↑ confidence to treat @ follow-up.
Pettersen, 2012 [14] (Norway) Addresses professionals’ needs for clinical competence and better understanding of the benefits of inter-professional collaboration in treating ED; approach is “exchange based” Doctors, nurses, psychologists & other health care workers (No answer) Qualitative Desire for ↑ ED services & training after program & to work inter-professionally