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Table 3 Characteristics of group fitness instructors with DE, No DE and self-reported EDa

From: Disordered eating behavior among group fitness instructors: a health-threatening secret?

  Males      Females          
  No DE (n = 114) DE (n = 38) t p ES No DE (n = 271) DE (n = 414) t p ES No ED (n = 654) ED (n = 27) t p ES
Age (years) 38.6 (10.1) 35.3 (6.5) 1.8 0.07 0.39 32.6 (7.6) 33.0 (8.9) 0.6 0.52 0.05 33.0 (8.3) 29.0 (7.7) 2.4 0.02* 0.50
BMI (kg/m2) 25.1 (2.7) 26.7 (2.4) 3.0 0.003** 0.63 22.1 (1.9) 22.8 (2.6) 3.6 0.000*** 0.31 22.5 (2.4) 22.8 (2.6) 0.7 0.46 0.12
Exercise besides instructing (hours/week) 6.0 (3.4) 5.7 (2.8) 0.4 0.67 0.10 4.3 (2.8) 4.2 (2.6) 0.2 0.86 0.04 4.2 (2.7) 5.0 (3.1) 1.5 0.13 0.28
Endurance training (hours/week) 3.7 (3.0) 3.3 (2.4) 0.7 0.48 0.15 2.5 (1.9) 2.6 (1.9) 0.6 0.52 0.05 2.5 (1.9) 3.0 (2.2) 1.2 0.21 0.24
Strength training (hours/week) 2.3 (1.8) 2.4 (1.9) 0.3 0.74 0.05 1.8 (1.5) 1.6 (1.3) 1.2 0.22 0.14 2.0 (1.3) 2.4 (1.4) 1.2 0.23 0.30
Instruction classes (hours/week) 1.4 (2.9) 2.1 (2.8) 1.4 0.17 0.25 3.3 (2.9) 3.2 (3.3) 0.1 0.26 0.03 3.2 (3.0) 4.7 (5.4) 2.4 0.02* 0.34
Aerobics, dance classes (hours/week) 0.2 (0.7) 0.4 (0.9) 1.4 0.17 0.25 0.5 (1.0) 0.6 (1.0) 1.1 0.26 0.10 0.5 (1.0) 0.7 (1.7) 1.2 0.25 0.14
Indoor cycling (hours/week) 1.7 (1.3) 1.4 (1.6) 1.2 0.23 0.21 0.8 (1.1) 0.9 (1.2) 0.2 0.83 0.09 0.9 (1.1) 0.9 (1.2) 0.7 0.74 0
Endurance classes (hours/week) 0.4 (0.9) 0.7 (1.0) 1.3 0.37 0.32 1.1 (1.3) 0.9 (1.1) 2.2 0.01* 0.17 0.8 (1.2) 0.9 (1.3) 0.7 0.47 0.08
Strength classes (hours/week) 0.3 (0.7) 0.3 (0.8) 0.3 0.68 0 0.7 (1.0) 0.6 (0.8) 1.7 0.10 0.11 0.6 (0.9) 0.6 (0.8) 0.2 0.87 0
Body/mind classes (hours/week) 0.02 (0.1) 0.1 (0.4) 2.3 0.02* 0.27 0.4 (1.0) 0.4 (1.0) 0.4 0.72 0 0.4 (0.9) 1.0 (2.3) 3.4 0.001** 0.34
Instructor experience (years) 7.4 (7.1) 7.7 (4.8) 0.2 0.81 0.05 8.7 (6.3) 8.9 (7.0) 0.3 0.75 0.03 8.9 (6.7) 6.8 (5.1) 1.6 0.11 0.35
Weight loss attempts (numbers) 1.3 (1.4) 12.4 (9.6) 12.1 0.000*** 1.62 1.7 (1.4) 8.0 (9.8) 10.9 0.000*** 0.90 4.8 (7.3) 15.2 (14.9) 6.6 0.000*** 0.89
Weight gain attempts (numbers) 1.6 (2.1) 2.1 (5.5) 0.5 0.60 0.12 0.4 (1.8) 0.3 (1.5) 0.4 0.69 0.06 0.3 (1.7) 0.1 (0.6) 0.7 0.50 0.16
EDI                
EDI total score 11.1 (9.7) 16.5 (13.3) 2.6 0.01* 0.46 10.5 (8.7) 21.0 (19.1) 9.0 0.000*** 0.71 14.9 (14.5) 47.8 (20.3) 11.3 0.000*** 1.87
Drive for thinness 1.0 (2.0) 2.2 (3.5) 2.6 0.01* 0.42 1.5 (2.5) 4.2 (5.2) 8.7 0.000*** 0.66 2.6 (3.8) 12.8 (5.1) 13.3 0.000*** 2.27
Body dissatisfaction 2.2 (2.8) 5.4 (5.9) 4.4 0.000*** 0.69 2.6 (3.8) 6.7 (7.0) 9.5 0.000*** 0.73 4.5 (5.7) 12.7 (8.2) 7.2 0.000*** 1.16
Bulimia 0.3 (0.8) 0.5 (1.3) 1.6 0.11 0.19 0.1 (0.4) 0.8 (2.1) 6.1 0.000*** 0.46 0.3 (1.0) 5.3 (4.1) 20.3 0.000*** 1.67
Interoceptive awareness 0.7 (1.8) 0.6 (1.3) 0.2 0.85 0.06 0.6 (1.4) 1.5 (2.6) 5.2 0.000*** 0.43 1.0 (2.0) 4.3 (3.6) 8.1 0.000*** 1.13
Maturity fears 2.1 (2.5) 1.6 (2.3) 0.9 0.36 0.21 1.7 (2.0) 2.1 (2.8) 2.5 0.01* 0.16 1.9 (2.8) 2.9 (3.6) 2.1 0.004* 0.31
Ineffectiveness 0.5 (1.5) 0.9 (2.0) 1.3 0.20 0.23 0.4 (1.2) 1.0 (2.4) 4.0 0.000*** 0.32 0.7 (1.9) 2.4 (2.9) 4.5 0.000*** 0.69
Perfectionism 3.1 (3.2) 3.0 (3.0) 0.2 0.87 .03 2.8 (3.0) 3.4 (3.2) 2.8 0.006** 0.19 3.1 (3.1) 5.4 (4.1) 3.9 0.000*** 0.63
Interpersonal distrust 1.3 (1.9) 2.2 (2.9) 2.2 0.03* 0.37 0.8 (1.6) 1.1 (2.1) 2.2 0.03* 0.16 0.9 (1.8) 2.0 (2.4) 3.0 0.003** 0.52
EDS                
EDS total score 56.6 (12.2) 58.5 (12.6) 0.8 0.41 0.15 54.9 (11.2) 57.7 (12.2) 3.0 0.003** 0.24 56.1 (11.6) 65.0 (13.7) 3.9 0.000*** 0.70
Withdrawal 7.8 (2.6) 9.1 (2.4) 2.2* 0.03 0.52 8.2 (2.6) 8.5 (2.6) 1.2 0.50 0.12 8.3 (2.6) 9.7 (2.8) 2.8 0.005** 0.52
Tolerance 9.8 (2.8) 9.6 (2.5) 0.3 0.77 0.07 9.3 (2.8) 9.5 (2.7) 0.7 0.50 0.07 9.4 (2.7) 10.1 (3.4) 1.4 0.18 0.23
Lack of control 8.1 (2.8) 7.6 (3.4) 0.9 0.39 0.16 7.4 (2.7) 8.1 (3.0) 3.2 0.001** 0.25 7.7 (2.9) 9.2 (2.9) 2.6 0.01* 0.52
Continuance 6.7 (2.8) 7.4 (2.8) 1.2 0.23 0.25 6.7 (2.8) 7.4 (3.3) 2.9 0.003** 0.23 7.0 (3.1) 8.4 (3.6) 2.5 0.02* 0.42
Intention effect 7.5 (2.3) 7.4 (2.1) 0.1 0.90 0.05 7.0 (2.0) 7.3 (2.3) 1.6 0.11 0.14 7.2 (2.2) 7.9 (1.9) 1.7 0.09 0.34
Time 10.0 (3.3) 10.3 (3.2) 0.6 0.57 0.09 10.2 (8.9) 10.3 (3.3) 0.3 0.78 0.01 10.2 (3.1) 11.6 (3.7) 2.4 0.02* 0.41
Reduction in other activities 6.6 (2.1) 7.1 (2.2) 1.2 0.22 0.23 6.0 (1.9) 6.4 (2.1) 2.8 0.005** 0.2 6.1 (2.0) 8.0 (2.3) 4.8 0.000*** 0.88
  1. a No male respondents reported current ED. This comparison was only made for the female respondents. ES: effect size (Cohen’s d). EDI: Eating Disorders Inventory. EDS: Exercise Dependence Scale. *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001
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