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Table 3 Sensitivity and specificity of BDDE-SR items in predicting ED-Only cases (n = 61)

From: The presence, predictive utility, and clinical significance of body dysmorphic symptoms in women with eating disorders

BDDE-SR item Sens. (%) Spec. (%)
1. Belief that imagined defect is common 37.7 72.7
2. Checking the imagined defect 65.6 58.3
3. Dissatisfaction with the imagined defect 82.0 53.5
4. Dissatisfaction with overall appearance † 63.9 71.9
5. Reassurance-seeking behavior 13.1 94.4
6. Preoccupation and distress associated with the imagined defect † 62.3 75.7
7. Social anxiety with strangers due to the imagined defect 45.9 76.2
8. Social anxiety with familiar people due to the imagined defect 54.1 74.3
9a. Belief that others notice the imagined defect 41.0 84.0
9b. Distress when others are believed to notice the imagined defect 50.0 81.7
10a. Frequency of comments made by others 3.3 95.2
10b. Distress caused by others’ comments 26.2 88.3
11a. Belief that treated differently because of defect 8.2 96.5
11b. Distress caused by being treated differently by others 14.8 96.1
12. Undue importance placed on appearance in self-evaluation 42.4 80.9
13. Negative evaluation of self based on imagined defect 42.6 87.8
14. Belief of being negatively evaluated by others due to the imagined defect 36.1 90.4
15. Rating of self-attractiveness 32.8 84.8
16a. Fluctuation in thinking/feeling * 34.4 74.0
16b. Ever believed not defected * 50.0 76.8
17. Avoidance of being around strangers 14.8 96.1
18. Avoidance of being around familiar people 14.8 98.7
19. Avoidance of physical contact 27.9 92.2
20. Restricting amount of contact during physical contact 39.3 88.3
21. Avoidance of physical activities 21.3 94.8
22. Camouflaging the imagined defect through dressing/grooming 77.0 52.0
23. Camouflaging the imagined defect through posturing/body movements † 68.9 70.3
24. Avoidance of looking at body 32.8 88.3
25. Avoidance of others seeing the body part unveiled 52.5 82.1
26. Comparing imagined defect to others’ body parts † 67.2 71.4
  1. ED = eating disorder, BDDE-SR = body dysmorphic disorder examination, short form, Sens. (sensitivity) = % of people with a probable eating disorder who endorsed the item, Spec. (specificity) = % of people without a probable eating disorder who did not endorse the item, † items with sensitivity and specificity > 60%; *items were yes/no dichotomous questions, where sensitivity was defined as % of participants with a probable eating disorder who answered ‘no’ and specificity was the % of participants without a probable eating disorder who answered ‘yes’.
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